Love: The Right Chemistry

Anastasia Toufexis provides an insightful explanation on love from a chemical perspective in her article, Love: The Right Chemistry. Toufexis presents an argument that love is based on factors that revolve around biology, evolution and chemistry. The main concept of the article is focused on the development of the romance. The author believes that love is not only focused on the reproductive tract, but for it to be meaningful, the romance must be involved. Love’s main purpose, according to Toufexis is to yield a long-term relationship and partnership that is important for procreation. In an illustration by the author, the argument presented shows that it is ecologically important for a parent in open grassland to pair up with a mate so as to rear young one (Toufexis, pg. 135, par. 5). In an attempt to explain why love lasts for a while, the author quotes, ideas from Hellen Fisher on the Four-Year Itch. In this, Fisher focuses on the time that two parents can be able to raise and offspring. The passion, as she states, towards each other is stronger when there is a new offspring to be raised and she estimates it lasts for tour years. It is then after the four years where one is able to find a new partner and begin the relationship all over again. To support this, Toufexis refers to the divorce statistics that peak around the fourth year.

Toufexis also notes that love is not eternal and that the human pattern can be explained through monogamy and clandestine adultery. The author is keen to note that the chemicals that the composition of the male and females tend to make them get swept away. In her discussion, she mentions the chemicals that are involved in love and they are dopamine, norepinephrine and phenylethalamine (PEA) (Toufexis p. 138, par. 10). Based on this, the author created a claim that PEA does not last forever and hence it is a source of passionate love that is often in many cases short lived. Applying the four year itch principle, then begins and endorphins ((Toufexis p. 139, par. 13) takes over by providing security, peace and calm hence it is the source of mature love. The love map is an important aspect that is mentioned and it explains why every person loves one person the most. Toufexis concludes that love and romance are shaped by chemistry, evolution and biology.

REFLECTION

This article is relevant in understanding the chemical perspective of love. It is based on the ideas that love and romance is shaped by chemistry, evolution and biology, the author has been able to rely on evidence to show that this is true. The context that is presented shows that the author is using theoretical facts, like the Four-Year Itch to explain the ideas behind divorce cases presented with the statistics. The perspective that is seen in this case shows that love is not only an abstract process, but it actually is scientific and various chemicals and biology revolves around love.

SHORT SUMMARY

Love: The Right Chemistry” by Anastasia Toufexis, is one of the most insightful articles that explain love from a chemical perspective. The article explaining how romance develops. The main aim of love and romance, according to Anastasia Toufexis, is to bring male and females into long-term partnership, that is essential for child rearing. For example, in page 137, paragraph 5, the author argues that it is ecologically critical for a parent in open grasslands to pair up with a mate to rear the young (Toufexis p. 137, par. 5). The article is based on a thesis statement that love and romance is determined by an organized chemical chain of events beyond the control of an individual.

REFLECTION

In this summary, there was the identification of three major factors that were able to determine the summary’s nature. To start with, in support of the thesis by the author, the short summary was able to reflect on the entire paper in a short and direct manner. The three major factors were chemistry, evolution and biology. In Chemistry we see that love has been subject to various body chemicals as well as the effects they have in love and romance. So as to develop the summary all this has been summed up into one aspect that is known as the chemical which brings people together in a common attraction. The evolution aspect is explained through an ecologically critical for a parent in open grasslands to pair up with a mate to rear the young. This shows the variation of features as well as the traits of human nature that are passed from generation to generation. Biology has been explained through a breakdown of the roles that are allocated to parents. It is presented that love and romance plays a major role in bringing male and females into long-term partnership that is essential for child rearing. The fact that the short summary has been able to explain these in a concise manner shows that the summary has been able to capture all the relevant information of the summary. It is clear that the summary has also used simple and direct examples to pass the point in regard to the overall development of the topic as well as the factors that have led to establishment of love and romance in the chemical, biological and evolutionary fields. Clearly, the main points have been explained in summary but the most important thing is that they are able to relate to the subject and retain the content of the article without making alterations to the author’s thesis statement.

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Incorporated in 1997, Apple Inc. was co-founded by Steven Wozniak and marketed by Steven Jobs. The first product of the company was well ahead of its incorporation, in 1976, the company introduced the first Apple I computer. Unfortunately, Apple I was a failure but 1980 was the year of success for the company with the launch of Apple II. The company came to the public through its Initial Public Offering in 1980. Then the time of competition led by the entry of IBM and so the early eighties were not pleasant for the company. The failure of Apple III in 1983 was a big shock. The company introduced first mouse based computer in the year 1984 named as Macintosh. The time of cheap personal computer came in the early nineties and Microsoft introduced Windows based operating system. By 1997, company has lost a huge sum of money. This was the time changes, when Steven Jobs, the original co-founder of the company, joined back as the interim Chief Executive Office. The company underwent a lot of changes and modifications for improvement. The company came up with an agreement with Microsoft, and resulted MS Office on Mac PCs. In the meantime the company also acquired Next, PowerSchool, Prismo Graphics, Silicon Grail, selected assets of Zayante, Emagic, Nothing Real, the German Apple Computer, Inc. and Spruce Technologies.

ITunes was launched in 2003 which has its own success story. Apple launches improved versions of iPhones and iPads regularly to provide better technologies to its customers.
Analysis of Financial Statements
There are many tools available for analysis of financial statements of a company. Review of financial statements and comparison with its previous period performance, forecasted financial statements, ratio analysis, economic value analysis, Du-Pont analysis, vertical analysis and horizontal analysis are few among these. Reading the financial policies of the company also help in understanding the performance of the company.
Review of financial statements
While reviewing the income statement of Apple Inc., we find a continuous growth in the sales of the company. While the sales in the year 2011 was $108 billion, it increased by 45% in 2012 to $157 billion and by 9% to $171 billion in 2013.The net income figure of the company during the year 2012 is showing a growth of 62% compared with 2011 however the figure for the year 2013 is 10% lower compared with 2012 which is on account of growth in cost of sales. Cost of sales in the year 2013 is increased by 17% however sales during the same period is recording a net growth of only 9%.
Balance sheet of the company is quite impressive with a total assets base of $207 billion, an increase from $176 billion in 2012. The shareholders ‘equity of the company is increased by 6 billion and company has taken long term debt amounting to $17 billion and an increase in short term debt can also be seen to the extent of $4 billion. Overall the balance sheet is showing a quite stable position with growth in its current assets and current liabilities in line with its improvement in operations and increase in equity & debt are for the purpose of expansion of the business.
Cash flow statement of the company also establishes that the company is performing very well. Cash generated from operations is showing a continuous growth, while the figure was $38 billion in 2011, it increased to $51 billion and $53 billion in the years 2012 and 2013 respectively. Sale and purchases of marketable securities are showing that the company is trying to maintain an optimum cash balance and it parks remaining cash in short term and long term funds for generating extra revenue.
Ratio Analysis
Among several tools available for analysis of financial statement, ratio analysis is most widely used because of its unique features and suitability (Block, 2011). Ratios are broadly classified in five categories, viz. liquidity, asset management, financial leverage, profitability and market value. Liquidity ratio tells about the short term liquidity position of the company. Asset management ratios tell about how effectively the assets of the company are utilized (zenwealth.com). Financial leverage ratios shows the financing pattern or the equity and debt proportion in the capital structure of the company (readyratios.com). Profitability ratios tell about the operational performance of the company and market value shows about the ratios that are directly related with the equity market. All the ratios are calculated based on the most recent figures (September 28, 2013) of the company.
Liquidity Ratio
Ratio Formula Calculation Ratio
Liquidity Ratios
Current Ratio Current Assets 73,286 1.68
Current Liabilities 43,658

Quick Ratio Quick Assets 71,522 1.64
Current Liabilities 43,658

The current ratio of Apple Inc. is 1.68 which happens to be lesser than the optimum ratio of 2.00 however the quick ratio of the company is very good at 1.64. As the company keeps minimum inventory, which is one of the requirements of the technology companies as these may become obsolete quickly, the two liquidity ratios of the company are very similar. The company may not find any difficulty in meeting its short term obligations as it maintains almost 1.68 times money in its current assets and company might be very comfortable in meeting its very short term obligations as well, as it has $1.64 in quick assets for paying $1.00 of current liabilities.

Asset Management Ratios
Ratio Formula Calculation Ratio
Asset Management Ratios
Fixed Assets Turnover Sales 170,910 10.30
Fixed Assets 16,597

Inventory Turnover Cost of Goods Sold 106,606 60.43
Inventory 1,764

The fixed assets turnover ratio of the company is above 10 and the inventory turnover ratio of the company is 60.43. A fixed asset turnover ratio of ten is quite good as in several industries, especially in capital intensive industries, the ratio may be as low as 1 and still these companies are treated as outperformers. Both the turnover ratios of the company are very strong and shows how best the resources of the company are maintained.

Financial Leverage Ratios
Ratio Formula Calculation Ratio
Financial Leverage Ratios
Debt Equity Ratio Total Debt 16,960 0.14
Shareholders’ Equity 123,549

Equity Multiplier Total Assets 207,000 1.68
Shareholders’ Equity 123,549

The debt equity ratio of the company is merely 0.14, that shows that for every $1 invested by the shareholders, the company has taken a loan of only $0.14 from the lenders. A low debt equity ratio shows that the company has enough scope for taking loan for its expansion plans in future. The equity multiplier shows that compared with $1 invested by the shareholders, how much worth of total assets company own. An equity multiplier of 1.68 is definitely very good and it gives a very high degree of comfort to the shareholders.

Profitability Ratios
Ratio Formula Calculation Ratio
Profitability Ratios
Gross Profit Ratio Gross Profit 64,304 37.6%
Sales 170,910

Net Profit Ratio Net Profit 37,037 21.7%
Sales 170,910

The gross margin ratio of the company is 37.6% and net profit margin ratio of the company is 21.7%. This high tech company knows very well that how it should market its products in order to get the maximum benefit from its sales and it is very clear from a very high gross margin and net profit ratios of this company.
Conclusion
We find that company is one the best managed technology company with improving financial performance in this highly competitive world. The company could also successfully create one of the best brand names in its segment and the Apple customers always feel proud to own Apple gadgets. Based on our complete analysis, we may conclude very positively that the company has very strong balance sheet, improving cash flows and a very appealing income statement showing its growth stories.

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Experiment al methods are scientific research methods that are applied in research where the researcher manipulates on the of the entities or valuables in the research to gauge the effect that it will have on the other variables of the research. Experimental methods are thus tools used to analyze and present the best out of the available results that can be obtained in an experiment. In an experiment, there are two vital parameters that can be used in the conduction of a research. These are the independent variable and the dependent variables
Independent variables are the parameters that can be altered in the course of performing of an experiment. These variables are used mainly to gauge the flexibility of an experiment. They are used to check how other variables in the experiment would respond in the case of the where the course of the experiment takes another turn. On the other hand, dependable variable are the variable that are measured when the independent variables are altered. The nature of the experiment determines the values to be changed so to produce the desired results.

On the other hand, experimental groups are the research items that are used in the scientific research experiments on which the procedures of the experiment are done. This group is exposed to the independent variable being tested and the changes observed and recorded. A control group is a group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variable’s effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternate explanations of the experimental results.

While all experiments have an experimental group, not all experiments require a control group. Controls are extremely useful where the experimental conditions are complex and difficult to isolate. Experiments that use control groups are called controlled experiments. There are two other types of control groups where the conditions the group are subjected to will cause predetermined results.

There are two categories of control groups; a positive control group and negative control group. Positive control groups are control groups where the conditions guarantee a positive result. O, n the other hand, negative control groups are control groups where conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not unaccounted for, such as contaminants.

In the research, “People Lie for a Reason: Three Experiments Documenting the Principle of Veracity”, the research was conducted on the basis of Sissela Bok’s principle of veracity which stipulates that the there is a general tendency to have an inclination of saying the truth rather than lying; only in the absence of certain conditions. The research therefore seeks to establish the prospect of speaking the truth in the presence of certain conditions which have been varied to make the research suit the expectations.

The research method used in the study is qualitative where various research participants who had been subdivided into group to gauge if he principle applied effectively. Presenting each of the variations of the research upon the students, the research sought to analyze the various requirements under which the principle applied. Each of the variations used. Analyzing each of the data obtained presents the researchers with quality information.
The major disadvantage of this research method; qualitative research method is that it collects data about what a particular select group of participants feels or thinks, or how they behave. One can’t necessarily use this data to make assumptions beyond this specific group of participants. It is not a research method that conveniently allows for the collection of statistical data. However this is only a disadvantage if your research question also requires statistical data. Adopting a mixed methods approach is one way of overcoming this problem.

On the other hand, the research method can be advantageous especially when the research focuses on small groups, it can be less expensive than quantitative research which may require large groups of participants or expensive measurement tools.